Dale Chihuly (born September 20, 1941) is an American glass sculptor and entrepreneur. His works are considered to possess outstanding artistic merit in the field of blown glass, “moving it into the realm of large-scale sculpture.” The technical difficulties of working with glass forms are considerable, yet Chihuly uses it as the primary medium for installations and environmental artwork.
Dale Patrick Chihuly was born on September 20, 1941, in Tacoma, Washington. His parents were George and Viola Chihuly; his paternal grandfather was born in Slovakia. In 1956, his older brother and only sibling, George, died in a Navy aviation training accident in Pensacola, Florida. Two years later, in 1958, Chihuly’s father died of a heart attack at the age of 51.
Chihuly had no interest in continuing his formal education after graduating from Woodrow Wilson High School in 1959. However, at his mother’s urging, he enrolled at the College of Puget Sound A year later, he transferred to the University of Washington in Seattle to study interior design. In 1961, he joined the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity (Kappa Epsilon chapter), and the same year he learned how to melt and fuse glass. Chihuly became bored with his studies, and in 1962 he dropped out of the university to study art in Florence. He later traveled to the Middle East where he met architect Robert Landsman. Their meeting and his time abroad spurred Chihuly to return to his studies. In 1963, he took a weaving class where he incorporated glass shards into tapestries. He received an award for his work from the Seattle Weavers Guild in 1964. Chihuly graduated from the University of Washington in 1965 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in interior design.
Chihuly began experimenting with glassblowing in 1965, and in 1966 he received a full scholarship to attend the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He studied under Harvey Littleton, who had established the first glass program in the United States at the university. In 1967, Chihuly received a Master of Science degree in sculpture. After graduating, he enrolled at the Rhode Island School of Design, where he met and became close friends with Italo Scanga. Chihuly earned a Master of Fine Arts degree in sculpture from the RISD in 1968. That same year, he was awarded a Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation grant for his work in glass, as well as a Fulbright Fellowship. He traveled to Venice to work at the Venini factory on the island of Murano, where he first saw the team approach to blowing glass. After returning to the United States, Chihuly spent the first of four consecutive summers teaching at the Haystack Mountain School of Crafts in Deer Isle, Maine. In 1969, he traveled to Europe, in part to meet Erwin Eisch in Germany and Stanislav Libenský and Jaroslava Brychtová in Czechoslovakia.
Chihuly donated a portion of a large exhibit to his alma mater, the University of Wisconsin, in 1997 and it is on permanent display in the Kohl Center. In 2013 the University awarded him a Honorary Doctorate of Fine Arts.
In 1971, with the support of John Hauberg and Anne Gould Hauberg, Chihuly cofounded the Pilchuck Glass School near Stanwood, Washington. Chihuly also founded the HillTop Artists program in Tacoma, Washington at Jason Lee Middle School and Wilson High School.
In 1976, while Chihuly was in England, he was involved in a head-on car accident during which he was propelled through the windshield. His face was severely cut by glass and he was blinded in his left eye. After recovering, he continued to blow glass until he dislocated his right shoulder in 1979 while bodysurfing. No longer able to hold the glassblowing pipe, he hired others to do the work. Chihuly explained the change in a 2006 interview, saying “Once I stepped back, I liked the view,” and pointed out that it allowed him to see the work from more perspectives and enabled him to anticipate problems earlier. Chihuly’s role has been described as “more choreographer than dancer, more supervisor than participant, more director than actor.”San Diego Union-Tribune reporter Erin Glass wrote that she “wonders at the vision of not just the artist Chihuly, but the very successful entrepreneur Chihuly, whose estimated sales by 2004 was reported by The Seattle Times as $29 million.” Chihuly and his team of artists were the subjects of the documentary Chihuly Over Venice. They were also featured in the documentary Chihuly in the Hotshop, syndicated to public television stations by American Public Television starting on November 1, 2008.
In 2006, Chihuly filed a lawsuit against his former longtime employee, glassblower Bryan Rubino, and businessman Robert Kaindl, claiming copyright and trademark infringement. Kaindl’s pieces used titles Chihuly had employed for his own works, such as Seaforms and Ikebana, and resembled the construction of Chihuly’s pieces. Arguments made by legal experts stated that influence on art style does not constitute copyright infringement. Chihuly settled the lawsuit with Rubino initially, and later with Kaindl as well.
Regina Hackett, a Seattle Post-Intelligencer art critic, provided a chronology of Chihuly’s work during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s:
- 1975: Navajo Blanket Series, in which patterns of Navajo blankets were painted onto glass
- 1977: Northwest Coast Basket Series, baskets inspired by Northwest coast Indian baskets he had seen as a child
- 1980: Seaform Series, transparent sculptures of thin glass, strengthened by ribbed strands of color
- 1981: Macchia Series, featuring every color available in the studio
- 1986: Persian Series, inspired by Middle East glass from the 12th- to 14th-century, featuring more restrained color and room-sized installations
- 1988: Venetian Series, improvisations based on Italian Art Deco
- 1989: Ikebana Series, glass flower arrangements inspired by ikebana
- 1990: Venetian Series returns, this time in a more eccentric form
- 1991: Niijima Floats, six-foot spheres of intricate color inspired by Japanese glass fishing floats from the island of Niijima from Chihuly’s website
- 1992: Chandeliers, starting modestly but by the middle of the decade involving a ton of glass orbs and shapes that in some works look like flowers, others like breasts, and still others like snakes. Chihuly has also produced a sizable volume of “Irish cylinders”, which are more modest in conception than his blown glass works.
For his exhibition in Jerusalem, Israel in 2000, in addition to the glass pieces, he had enormous blocks of transparent ice brought in from an Alaskan artesian well and formed a wall, echoing the stones of the nearby Citadel. Lights with color gels were set up behind them for illumination. Chihuly said the melting wall represented the “dissolution of barriers” between people. This exhibit holds the world record for most visitors to a temporary exhibit with more than 1.3 million visitors.
Chihuly’s largest permanent exhibit can be found at the Oklahoma City Museum of Art. Chihuly maintains two retail stores in partnership with MGM Resorts International. One is located at the Bellagio on the Las Vegas Strip, the other at the MGM Grand Casino in Macau. A number of other galleries also carry his pieces. He also has a gallery in Las Vegas in the Crystals in the Las Vegas City Center in Gallery Row. In 1983 Chihuly returned to his native Pacific Northwest where he continued to develop his own work at the Pilchuck Glass School, which he had helped to found in 1971. Throughout the 1970s, influenced by the great glassblowing tradition of Murano, Chihuly experimented with the team approach to glassblowing. Working with a team of master glassblowers and assistants has enabled him to produce architectural glass art of a scale and quantity unimaginable working alone or with only one assistant. In 2010 the Space Needle Corporation submitted a proposal for an exhibition of Chihuly’s work at a site in the Seattle Center, in competition with proposals for other uses from several other groups. The project, which sees the new Chihuly exhibition hall occupy the site of the former Fun Forest amusement park in the Seattle Center park and entertainment complex, received the final green light from the Seattle City Council on April 25, 2011. Called Chihuly Garden and Glass, it opened May 21, 2012.
- 1996: Chihuly Over Venice, Venice, Italy
- 1999–2000: Chihuly in the Light of Jerusalem 2000, Tower of David, Jerusalem, Israel
- 2001: Chihuly at the V&A, Victoria and Albert Museum, London
- 2001–2002: Chihuly In The Park: A Garden Of Glass, Garfield Park Conservatory, Chicago, Illinois
- 2002: Winter Olympic Exhibition, Salt Lake City, Utah
- 2004: Chihuly Over Florida: Masterworks in Glass, Orlando Museum of Art and [[Museum of Fine Arts (St. Petersburg, Florida)|Museum of Fine Arts] in St. Petersburg, Florida, Jan. 18 – May 30 (2004)]
- 2004: Chihuly in the Garden, Atlanta Botanical Garden, Atlanta, Georgia
- 2005: Gardens of Glass, Kew Gardens, London.
- 2005: Modern and Contemporary American Art (1900 to present), Kalamazoo Institute of Arts, Kalamazoo, Michigan
- 2005–2007: Chihuly at Fairchild, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, Florida
- 2006: Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri
- 2006: Oisterwijk Sculptuur, Oisterwijk, Netherlands
- 2006: New York Botanical Garden, New York, New York
- 2007: Wrapped In Tradition: The Chihuly Collection of American Indian Trade Blankets, Mayborn Museum Complex, Waco, Texas
- 2007: Chihuly at Phipps: Gardens and Glass, Phipps Conservatory, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
- 2008: Chihuly at the de Young, de Young Museum, San Francisco, California
- 2009: Chihuly: Day and Night, Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona
- 2009: Chihuly Illuminated, Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus, Ohio
- 2009: Chihuly: Recent Work, Naples Museum of Art, Naples, Florida
- 2010: Chihuly at Cheekwood, Cheekwood Botanical Gardens, Nashville, Tennessee
- 2010: Chihuly at the Salk, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California
- 2010: Chihuly at Frederik Meijer Gardens & Sculpture Park: A New Eden, Frederik Meijer Gardens & Sculpture Park, Grand Rapids, Michigan
- 2011: Through the Looking Glass, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts
- 2012: Chihuly at The Dallas Arboretum, Dallas Arboretum, Dallas, Texas
- 2012: Chihuly at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia
- 2013: Chihuly, Un univers à couper le souffle (Chihuly: Utterly Breathtaking), Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
- 2013–2014: Chihuly in the Garden, Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona
- 2014: Chihuly Denver, Denver Botanic Gardens, Denver, Colorado
- 2016: Chihuly Venetians, Lauren Rogers Museum of Art, Laurel, Mississippi
- 2016: Chihuly, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- 2016: Chihuly in the Garden, Atlanta Botanical Garden
- 2017: Chihuly, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York
- 2018: Chihuly at the Biltmore House Asheville, NC
- 2019: Reflections on nature, Kew Gardens, London.
Chihuly’s art appears in permanent collections all over the world, including in the United States (The Chihuly Collection housed in its own building on Central Ave in St Petersburg, Florida), Canada, England, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait.
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- Chihuly Over Venice by William Warmus and Dana Self. Seattle: Portland Press, 1996.
- Chihuly by Donald Kuspit. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1998.
- The Essential Dale Chihuly by William Warmus. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2000.
- Dale Chihuly:365 Days. Margaret L. Kaplan, Editor. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2008.
- Chihuly Drawing, illustrated by Chihuly, with an essay by Nathan Kernan. Portland Press, 2003, ISBN 1-57684-019-0
- Warmus, William; Oldknow, Tina (2020). Venice and American Studio Glass. Milan: Skira. ISBN 9788857243870.